Uttar Pradesh To Hold State-Level Common Entrance Test For Admission To PhD Programs

The Vice-Chancellors of the universities in Uttar Pradesh have resolved to hold a state level Common Entrance Test for admission to the PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) degree course. Besides, all the state universities will have a common syllabus, making it easier for the students to select their teachers under the ‘virtual class’ system as well as a common time-table to hold entrance tests, examinations, and to declare results.

Biology Syllabus for AIPMT 2011


Unit : 1 Diversity in Living World

Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind

What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.

Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens

Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);

Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

Unit : 2 Cell : The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function

Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.

Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells. Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.

Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.

Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.

Unit : 3 Genetics and Evolution

Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;

Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.

DNA –its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.

Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

Unit : 4 Structure and Function – Plants

Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;

Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;

Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.

Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.

Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .

Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

Unit : 5 Structure and Function – Animals


Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of earthworm, cockroach and frog.

Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.

Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function

Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.

Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.

Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).

Chemistry Syllabus for AIPMT 2011


Unit : 1 Some basic concepts in Chemistry

Importance of Chemistry, physical quantities and their measurement in Chemistry, SI Units, uncertainty in measurements and use of significant figures, Unit and dimensional analysis, Matter and its nature,laws of chemical combinations, atomic, and molecular, masses mole concept, molar masses, percentage composition and molecular formula, chemical stoichiometry.

Unit : 2 States of matter

Three states of matter, gaseous state, gas laws (Boyle’s Law and Charles Law), Avogadro’s Law, Grahams’Law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases, real gases and deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waals’ equation, liquefaction of gases and critical points, Intermolecular forces; liquids and solids.

Unit : 3 Atomic structure

Earlier atomic models (Thomson’s and Rutherford) , emission spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s model, of hydrogen atom, Limitations of Bohr’s model, dual nature of matter and radiation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum mechanical model of atom (quantum designation of atomic orbitals and electron energy in terms of principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers), electronic spin and spin quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, general idea of screening (constants) of outer electrons by inner electrons in an atom, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule, atomic orbitals and their pictorial representation, electronic configurations of elements.

Unit : 4 Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

Need and genesis of classification of elements (from Doebereiner to Mendeleev), Modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number > 100, electronic configurations of elements and periodic table, electronic configuration and types of elements and s, p, d and f blocks, periodic trends in properties of elements (atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence/ oxidation states and chemical reactivity).

Unit : 5 Chemical energetics

Some basic concepts in thermodynamics, first law of thermodynamics, heat capacity, measurement ofDU and DH, calorimetry, standard enthalpy changes, thermochemical equations, enthalpy changes during phase transformations, Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of formation, bond enthalpies and calculations based on them.

Unit : 6 Chemical bonding

Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, polarity of bonds and concept of electronegativity, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory , shapes of simple molecules, valence bond theory, hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of molecules sand p bonds; Molecular orbital theory involving homounclear diatomic molecules; Hydrogen-bonding.

Unit : 7 Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant, homogeneous equilibrium, heterogenous equilibrium, application of equilibrium constants, Relationship between reaction quotient Q, equilibrium constant, K and Gibbs’ energy G; factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chateliar’s principle.

Ionic equilibrium

Acids, Bases and Salts and their ionization, weak and strong electrolytes degree of ionization and ionization constants, concept of pH, ionic product of water, buffer solution, common ion effect, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products.

Unit : 8 Redox reactions

Physics Syllabus for AIPMT 2011




Unit : 1 Introduction and Measurement

What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology; Need for measurement of physical quantities, units for measurement, systems of units-SI : fundamental and derived units. Dimensions of physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and its applications. Orders of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement – random and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off the numbers.

Graphs, Trigonometric functions, Concepts of differentiation and integration.

Unit : 2 Description of Motion in One Dimension

Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight line, Uniform and non-uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time graph, position-time graph and their formulae. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion with examples. Acceleration in one-dimensional motion.

Unit : 3 Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions

Vectors and scalars quantities, vectors in two and three dimensions, vector addition and multiplication by a real number, null-vector and its properties. Resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular components. Scalar and vector products. Motion in two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion, general relation among position-velocity-acceleration for motion in a plane and uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space (elementary ideas).

Unit : 4 Laws of Motion

Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, examples of different kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic frictions, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas).

Unit : 5 Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, energy and power. Work Energy Theorem. Elastic and in-elastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Notions of potential energy, conservation of mechanical energy : gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Conservative forces. Different forms of energy, mass-energy equivalence, conservation of energy.

Unit : 6 Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of circular motion (car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum swinging in a vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its physical significance, moment inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements only), Comparison between translatory (linear) and rotational motion.

Unit : 7 Gravitation

Acceleration due to gravity, one and two dimensional motion under gravity. Universal law of gravitation, inertial and gravitational mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, statement of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational potential, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, escape velocity, weightlessness.

AIPMT 2011 online registration started

Click here to download Information Bulletin

Eligibility and Qualifications :

  • He/She has completed age of 17 years at the time of admission or will complete the age on or before 31st December of the year of his/her admission to the 1st year MBBS/BDS Course and is an INDIAN NATIONAL.
  • The upper age limit for All India Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Entrance Examination is 25 years as on 31st December of the year of the entrance examination. Further provided that this upper age limit shall be relaxed by a period of 5 (five) years for the candidates of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes.
    Candidate must born or between
    a) 01.01.82 to 01.01.95 (SC/ST/OBC Category)
    b) 01.01.87 to 01.01.95 (Other Category)
  • The candidate must have passed in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Bio-technology and English individually and must have obtained a minimum of 50% marks taken together in Physics, Chemistry and Biology/Bio-technology at the qualifying examination. In respect of the candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes the marks obtained in Physics, Chemistry and Biology/Bio-technology taking together in qualifying examination be 40% instead of 50% for General Candidates. Further, for persons for locomotory disability of lower limbs, the minimum 45% marks for General – PH and 40% marks for SC-PH/ST-PH/OBC-PH are required.Those who are taking plus two examination in 2011 can also appear for the entrance test provisionally subject to their fulfilling the conditions later.

Reservation :


15% seats for SC candidates, 7.5% seats for ST candidates, 27% seats for non-creamy layer OBC candidates in Central Institutions only and 3% seats on horizontal bases for physically handicapped candidates are reserved in 15% All India quota for MBBS/BDS courses.


Simple steps to Apply Online

Fill the Online Application Form and note down the registration number

Make payment of Fee through Demand Draft or Credit Card

Take a printout of Confirmation Page and send to CBSE

CAT 2010: This Time No Glitches On Day One

This year, the CAT exam began on 27th Oct. 2010. No technical glitches were reported on the first day. Last year, when the exam went online for the first time, many test centres reported technical glitches and due to that many students did not complete their test. The organisers of CAT can take a sigh of relief, as this year no technical error and other glitches were reported. This time, the IIMs and their US-based partners left no stone unturned to make sure that the students will not face any problem while taking this test. On the first day, not many students turned up for the test but the authorities were expecting a large number of students to take it up in the following few days.

Entrance Exam for Sainik Schools : Get Help and Guidance Here


a. Written Test : The test will be held on Third Sunday of Feb every year. details are as follows: Class VI: i. Mathematical knowledge Test & Language Ability Test. ii. Intelligence Test. The test can be taken in English or Hindi or Malayalam.

Class IX: i. Mathematics & Science ii. English & Social Studies The test can be taken in English or Hindi or Malayalam except serial No. 2 English. However the question papers will be in English only. b. The syllabus and question pattern given are subject to changes from time to time. c. Interview & Medical Test: The boys who qualify in the written test will be required to appear at a later date before a selection Board for an Interview & Medical Test. Prospectus, Application form and Model question paper can he obtained from the Principal, Sainik School, Kazhakootam by post on payment of the prescribed cost mentioned below, by sending a crossed demand draft, payable at Trivandrum drawn in favour of Principal, Sainik school, Kazhakootam, Trivandrum.


1. The Medical Examination of candidates for admission to Sainik School will be carried out by a Medical Board

2. It is not possible to lay down precise standard for height, weight and chest measurements for these candidates. But the Medical Board will be guided in its assessment by the Physical standards laid down for candidates for admission to National Defence Academy. Height and to an extent weight are constitutional qualities which are largely governed by heredity. Therefore candidate whose parents are short statured and below normal weight may not eventually attain the minimum standard height and weight required for the Armed Forces. This point should therefore he borne in mind by the parent/guardians of such candidates before they seek admission for their children/wards. The important facts concerning health are given below: –

3. Visual Standards Distant Vision (uncorrected) Standard I 6/6 (Both eyes) Distant Vision Standard II Better eye worse eye 6/18 6/18 Correctable to 6/6 Correctable to 6/9 The minimum acceptable visual standard for admission to Sainik School will be Standard II Colour perception: CPI (MLT)

Note a. i. Myopia not to exceed minus 1.5 D including astigmatism

ii. Manifest Hypermetropia not to exceed plus 2.5 D sph including astigmatism

iii. Fundus & Media to he healthy with no changes of myopia

iv. Visual Fields-to be full in each eye.

v. Binocular vision and stereopsls must be good

b. The above will have to he certified by a State Employed Ophthalmologist in advance of boy’s arrival for admission.

c. There is no squint or morbid condition of the eye or of the lids, which is liable to a risk of aggravation or recurrence.

4. It will also he ensured that:

a. There is no evidence of weak constitution, malformations or obesity, there is no evidence of heart murmur.