Unit : 8 Heat and Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and temperature ( zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal gas and relation between them. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state, equation of state and isothermals, pressure-temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of thermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines. Entropy. Transfer of heat : conduction, convection and radiation. Newton ’s law of cooling.
Thermal conductivity. Black body radiation, Wien’s law, Solar constant and surface temperature of the sun, Stefan’s law,
Unit : 9 Oscillations
Periodic and oscillatory motions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., Simple pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance and damped oscillations; Simple examples.
Unit : 10 Waves
Longitudinal and transverse waves and wave motion, speed of progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves; reflection of waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only), standing waves. Normal modes and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect.
Unit : 11 Electrostatics
Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, unit of charge, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric potential – its physical meaning, potential due to a di-pole, di-pole field and behaviour of dipole in a uniform (2-dimensional) electric field. Flux, Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find electric field due to uniformly charged simple systems. Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Capacitance (parallel plate), Dielectric material and its effect on capacitance (concept only), capacitances in series and parallel, energy of a capacitor. Van de Graff generator.
Unit : 12 Current Electricity
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f., cells : simple, secondary, chargeable, combinations of cells in series and parallel. Electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistors. Ohm’s law and its limitation. Superconductors (elementary ideas). Kirchoff’s laws, resistances in series and parallel, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of resistance. Potentiometer – measurement of e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.
Unit : 13 Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents
Electric power, heating effects of current and Joule’s law. Thermoelectricity: Seebeck effect, measurement of temperature using thermocouple. Chemical effects and Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
Unit : 14 Magnetic Effect of Currents
Oersted’s observation, Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field due to an element of current), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torques on currents in a magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter. Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter/ammeter.
Unit : 15 Magnetism
Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), magnetic lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in a magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field as a bar magnet, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer. Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples (simple idea). Electromagnets and permanent magnets.