· What is the importance of secondary activities in the world?

Secondary activities add value/utility to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products.

· Name the terminal stations of Australian trans- continental railway.

Sydney and Perth

· Name the state of India having the highest density of population and also mention its density.

West Bengal [903 persons per sq km]

· Which state of India has the lowest literacy rate? Mention its literacy rate also.

Bihar [47.53%]

· Name the largest metropolitan city of Uttar Pradesh. Write its population according t census 2001

Kanpur [2.69 million]

· Name any two sub sections of cotton textile industry in the world

Handloom, power loom, mill sector

· How is the cropping intensity calculated in India

Gross cropped area x100

Net sown area

· What was the main objective to implement the fourth five year plan for the people in drought prone areas

To provide employment

To create productive assets

· Mention any two cultural activities responsible for water pollution in India

Pilgrimage, Religious fairs, Tourism

· Which one of the Indian sea ports provides port facilities to its land locked neighbouring countries. Name any one such country


Nepal and Bhutan

· Mention any six advantages of oceanic routes

1. Provide smooth highway traversable in all directions

2. There is no maintenance cost

3. It is much cheaper compared to other means of transport

4. Does not require route construction

5. The energy cost is lower

6. Ideal for bulky goods

7. Environment friendly

· Which are the two components of population growth in India? describe the main feature of each component

Natural and induced

Natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rate

Induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area

· State any six characteristics of road transport in India

1. One of the largest road networks in the world

2. Total length of 33.1 lakh km

3. About 85% of passengers are carried by roads

4. About 70% of freight carried

5. Relatively suitable for short distance

6. Increases the efficiency of other transport

7. Connects farms to market and factories

8. Provides door to door service

9. Very flexible, reliable and speedy

10. For the purpose of construction and maintenance they are divided into various categories

11. Quality and density of road varies considerably from state to state or from region to region

· Explain the concept of environmental determinism with suitable examples

Environmental determinism refers to the point of view supporting environmental control on human actions

In early stage humans were greatly influenced by nature. They adapted to the dictates of nature

The level of technology was very low. Accordingly, history, culture life style and stage of development of a social group and society are largely governed by physical factors of the environment

The determinists consider humans as passive agents. Nature determines their attitudes, decision making and life styles. Interaction between primitive human society and strong forces of nature is a typical example

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