– Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions.
Unit :22 Hydrocarbons
Alkanes and cycloalkanes : classification of hydrocarbons, alkanes and cycloalkanes, nomenclature and conformations of alkanes and cycloalkanes.
Alkenes and alkynes : Nomenclature and isomerism, general methods of preparation, properties (physical and chemical), mechanism of electrophilic addition, Markownikoff’s rule, peroxide effect, acidic character of alkynes, polymerisation reactions.
Aromatic hydrocarbons : Benzene and its homologues, nomenclature, sources of aromatic hydrocarbons (coal and petroleum), structure of benzene, chemical reaction of benzene-mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Directive influence of substituents and their effect on reactivity.
Petroleum and petrochemicals : Composition of crude oil fractionation and uses, quality of gasoline, LPG, CNG, cracking and reforming, petrochemicals.
Unit :23 Purification and characterization of carbon compounds
– Purification of carbon compounds : filtration, crystallisation, sublimation, distillation chromatography,
– Qualitative analysis : detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
– Quantitative analysis : estimation of different elements (H, N, halogens, S and P)
– Determination of molecular masses : Silver salt method, chloroplatinate salt method, calculations of empirical and molecular formulas.
Unit :24 Organic compounds with functional groups containing halogens (X)
– Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes, nomenclature, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, reactivity of C-X bond in haloalkanes and haloarenes.
– Some commercially important compounds : dichloro, trichloro and tetrachloromethanes; p-dichlorobenzene, freons, BHC, DDT, their uses and important reactions.
Unit :25 Organic compounds with functional groups containing oxygen
Alcohols and phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; chemical reactivity of phenols in electrophilic substitutions, acidic nature of phenol, ethers: electronic structure, structure of functional group, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, some commercially important compounds.
Aldehydes and ketones : Electronic structure of carbonyl group, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions, relative reactivity of aldehydic and ketonic groups, acidity of a-hydrogen, aldol condensation. Connizzarro reaction, nucleophilic addition reaction to >C=O groups.
Carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of-COOH, Nomenclature, important methods of preparation, physical properties and effect of substituents on a-carbon on acid strength, chemical reactions.
Derivatives of carboxylic acids : Electronic structure of acid chloride, acid anhydride, ester and amide groups, nomenclature, important methods of preparation, comparative reactivity of acid derivatives. Some commercially important compounds.
Unit :26 Organic Compounds with functional group containing nitrogen
– Structure, nomenclature of nitro, amino, cyano and diazo compounds.
– Nitro compounds – important methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions.
– Amines : primary, secondary and tertiary amines, a general awareness, important methods of preparation, physical properties, basic character of amines, chemical reactions.
– Cyanides and isocyanides : preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions.
– Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reaction and uses of benzene diazonium chloride. Some commercially important nitrogen containg carbon compounds, (aniline, TNT)
Unit :27 Polymers
Classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation: addition-free radical, cationic, anionic polymerization, copolymerisation, natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubbers, condensation polymers, idea of macromolecules, biodegradable polymers.