Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Unit : 7 Reproduction and Development in Humans
Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.
Unit : 8 Ecology and Environment
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.
Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web; Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
Biodiversity – Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries)
Environmental Issues – Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozonedepletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots).
Unit : 9 Biology and Human Welfare
Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths, and their control.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root – knot of vegetables.
Bioenergy – Hydrocarbon – rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.
Unit : 10 Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.